Dedicated to all those who served with or supported the 456th Fighter Squadron or 456th Fighter Interceptor Squadron or the UNITED STATES AIR FORCE

 

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The Variants Of The P-51 "Mustang"

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The NA-73X ... The Beginning

We will be skipping most of the P-51 history lesson and only delve into the pertinent aspects of development and production.

We will begin in March 1940, when NAA's chief designer, Edgar Schmued was approached by NAA's President, Dutch Kindelberger and asked, "Ed, do we want to build P-40s here?" Well, Schmued had been long awaiting a question like this. "Well, Dutch, don't let us build an obsolete airplane, let's build a new one. We can design and build a better one."

Kindelberger and VP Lee Atwood sold their idea to the British and the race was one. NAA promised the British a fighter flyable in 120 days. That's the time it would have taken to tool up for building the P-40 at NAA. Deliveries to England were to begin in January of 1941.

The NA-73  The First Prototype

 

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NA-73X

The first prototype was designated NA-73X. NA-73X was actually ready in 102 days but was less the Allison V-12. NAA waited on Allison's doorstep until the V-12 was ready. When they finally got the Allison, it had been modified from the drawings and NAA had to build new motor mounts. The prototype also had no armament yet and used some T-6 parts.

The P-51 was designed around the Allison V-1710-39 V-12 and a 5-foot 10-inch 140-pound pilot creating a very sleek and narrow fuselage. The P-40, which also used the Allison was originally designed for an air-cooled radial engine resulting in a large frontal area of drag. NAA decided to use a brand new wing design by NACA called the NACA-23 Series Airfoil. It was a low drag laminar flow airfoil. This was a very bold step especially considering the timeline promised. There were tests and data but no real proof the new wing design would work as well as the design tests predicted.

NAA's head aerodynamicist, Ed Horkey, adapted the NACA profile for the P-51. The basics of laminar flow is the thickest part of the wing, which is normally about 20-25 percent back from the leading edge, is moved further back to about 50 percent of the wing cord. Both the top and bottom of the wing were evenly contoured, somewhat like a copy of the top was put on the bottom.

The radiator would be in the belly of the aircraft with its own intake scoop. The design of the radiator scoop and exit door was supposed to not interfere with the wing and fuselage aerodynamics. It if did, that would cause turbulence and then drag. It was later found out (in wind tunnel testing) that the hot air from the radiator actually created thrust as the hot air exited at a greater velocity than it entered.

The stressed aluminum skin would have all flush riveting or screws for speed. Large self-sealing fuel tanks would be installed in the wings holding nearly double the fuel as the Spitfire - 170 gallons. The fuselage tank would come later in production. The British specs included heavy armament of 8 guns. NAA planned to use four .50 cal and four .30 cal guns. Two .50 cal guns would be installed in the nose with synchronized firing through the propeller, the other two in the wings along side the .30 cal guns. The wing mounted guns were staggered for a better fit.

The landing gear was designed with a wide-track of 12 feet and would fold inward. In contrast, the ME-109 folds outward and has a much narrower track resulting in difficult handling on the ground rolls. The Spitfire and P-40 also had narrower tracks. The P-51 will incorporate closing inner gear doors while the gear was out minimizing drag with the gear extended. The tail wheel is also fully retractable and can be steered by the rudder (limited) or free-swinging.

The engine installed was the Allison V-1710-F3R liquid-cooled V-12 rated at 1,100 horsepower turning a 3-bladed Curtis electric propeller.

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NA-73X

Every effort was made to get the highest performance and then to make the P-51 easy to manufacture. The design team at NAA, with Schmued at the head, would accomplish this goal.

NA-73X was all metal skinned except the rudder and the elevators. The guns were never fitted. In March of 1941, NA-73X was torn down a bit for landing gear tests. The final fate of NA-73X is unknown and there is no consensus on its demise.

Testing of NA-73X went very well and production started as soon as NAA could going. The only glitch in the testing was a force landing which put the prototype on its back in a plowed field. Cause was pilot error - fuel starvation (there has been speculation that it could have been a problem with the induction intake but I've only read that in one printed source). Repairs were made and testing continued as production of the Mustang Is began.

 

The Prototypes

 

XP-51    41-038, 41-039

 

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XP-51

Specifications

XP-51
 

Model XP-51
Production 2
Length 32.25
Height 12.2
Wingspan 37.04
Weight - empty 6275
Weight - normal T.O.  
Weight - max G.W. 7,934
Powerplant Allison V-1710-39
Horsepower 1,150
Propeller Curtiss 3-bladed electric 10'6"
Max Speed 382 @ 13k
Service Ceiling 30,800
Fuel Capacity 170
Drop Tanks na
Range 750
Guns 2x .50 cal, 2x .30 cal
Bomb / Rockets na

A condition of the approval of the sale of fighter aircraft from North American Aviation to the British Government was to supply the US Army with two samples, free of charge, for evaluation. The two P-51s were designated XP-51, NA-73. They were the fourth and tenth production aircraft. One of them, 41-038, still exists today at the EAA Museum in Oshkosh, WI. The Army was not in a big hurry to test the XP-51 seemingly bogged down in testing of other aircraft like the P-39, P-38 and P-47. Testing of the XP-51 began in October of 1941 with very high remarks. Still, the Army did not place immediate orders even though the performance of the XP-51 was clearly superior to other US fighters at that time. Top speed was measured at 382 mph at 13,000 feet.

 

XP-51B    41-37352,  &    41-37421

 

The limitation of the Allison V-12 became very apparent over 15,000 feet and especially over 20,000. It was an excellent low-altitude performer. The Rolls Royce Merlin's installed in the British Spitfires and Hurricanes performed beautifully at altitude. The two-stage supercharger kept pumping in induction air as the aircraft climbed. It was only a matter of time before this marriage took place.

On April 30, 1942 Rolls Royce senior test pilot Ron Harker was invited to fly the Mustang I. He was delighted with the aircraft's handling but felt its performance was held back by its engine. He stated that the Mustang would be a natural for the Merlin 61 series. Harker pressed the Defense Ministry to approve such a change. Permission was finally given and The British, in June 1942, began the fitting of the Merlin 61 to a Mustang I. They used five Mustang Is (serials AM121, AM208, AL975, AM203, and AL963) and the first flew in October 1942 with a re-designation of Mustang X. None of these Mustang Xs were exactly the same. Engineers were trying different techniques and solutions to the new installation.

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The XP-51

The XP-51

Meanwhile, the Americans had been interested in using the Packard Merlin in the Mustang and on July 25, 1942 the US authorized a similar conversion designated NA-101, XP-51B. Two ships, 41-37352 and 41-37421 were taken for the conversions. The XP-51B had to be strengthened for the added power and a new propeller by Hamilton Standard was designed.

The Merlin 61 V-12 with its two-stage compressor really cooked the air before it entered the carburetor. An intercooler had to be installed to cool the intake air. The British installed the intercooler under the engine near the intake trunk of the Mustang X. The Americans put the intercooler in the doghouse assembly with the coolant radiator under the fuselage. This reduced the size of the cowlings around the new engine but increased the size of the belly scoop area.

The first flight by Bob Chilton was on November 30, 1942. NAA was very pleased with the results (might have been some jumping up and down with excitement). The new Mustang reached 441 mph at 29,000 plus feet. At this altitude, the XP-51B would simply run away from an Allison Mustang that was nearly 100 mph slower.

Orders for the new P-51B were placed in August of 1942, months before the test flights. P-51A production was cut short to make room for the new Merlin powered Mustangs. During this time period Packard was working with Rolls Royce to build their Merlin series V-12s in the U.S. The negotiations were successful and Packard began the produce V-1650-3 Marlins for the new P-51B.

 

XP-51D

 

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XP-51D

The B/C model was very streamlined but offered little in rearward visibility. A British company invented and constructed the "Malcolm Hood" which was used extensively on the Spitfire and retrofitted to the P-51B and P-51C. This helped considerably but the Army was in search of a more long-term solution. In January 1943, the U.S. Army sent a Colonel, Col. Mark Bradley, to England because the British had a newly invented "bubble" canopy they were using on late model Spitfires and Typhoons. He was to evaluate the new canopy and its possibilities with U.S fighters.

On return, Col. Bradley began working on creating this new canopy for U.S. fighters. This was in June of 1943. The first modified B model with the bubble canopy was a P-51B-1NA 43-12102 (pic on this page). Two airframes taken from production for XP-51Ds were P-51B-10NA 42-106539 and 42-106540 under change order NA-106. The XP-51D first flew in November of 1943. A contract had already been issued in July of 1943 for 2,200 P-51Ds and deliveries of the P-51D began in March of 1944.

NAA also incorporated other changes into the XP-51D. They fixed the gun jamming problem of the B/C series by installing the guns upright. They also added another .50 cal to each wing for a total of six. The wing was modified for the gun installation and a differing gear geometry and the famous leading edge kink near the wing root was enhanced. From photos, it looks like P-51B 43-12102 did not get this wing change or the gun change. The P-51D was the most produced model of the Mustang and was built in Inglewood, Ca and Dallas Tx.

Lightweights

 

Fighters designed and built in the U.S. were under a different design specifications than the British aircraft and were heavier. Higher design loads equal more weight. Schmued and his team needed to shave some weight and gain more performance. The P-51 was amongst the slowest in time to climb performance.

NA-105 was the designation for the lightweight fighters. A contract from the Air Force was approved in July of 1943. The contract consisted of three XP-51Fs, and two each of the XP-51G and XP-51J. These were new built aircraft not taken from previous allocations as nearly all the parts were not interchangeable with previous models.

Schmued visited England aircraft factories and the Rolls Royce factory to work out details of their new engine, the RM.14.SM which produced 2,200 HP. The new engine was met with enthusiasm from Schmued, but they would run into delivery problems later. Very promising was the idea of less weight and more horsepower.

The lightweights included refinements like a completely new thinner wing with a straight leading edge, smaller landing gear, less fuel in the wing tanks and deletion of the fuselage fuel tank. Big changes were made to the skins. A new skin material, thinner and stronger, was used. NAA could not find a supplier who could deliver material until the following year. So NAA figured out a way to make their own new alloy - a risky venture. There were problems mounting the thinner skins. Flush rivets were no good because the countersinking took out too much of the thinner skins. So a new dimpling process was incorporated with some trial and error.

XP-51F 43-43332, 43-43333, 43-43334


(Different references give different speeds obtained by the lightweights. I am going to use speeds from the book "Mustang Designer - Edgar Schmued and the P-51". The speeds from this source are 20-30 mph more than given in other sources). Max speed was boosted to 491 mph at 21,500 feet with a ceiling of 42,100 feet. The XP-51F used the RR Merlin V-1650-3 and a 3-bladed hollow Aeroproducts prop. Armament was four .50 cal guns. In all, NAA stripped about 1600 pounds off the combat weight! The second XP-51F was tested in the U.S while the third was given an RAF serial of FR409 and shipped to Brittan for testing.
 

XP-51G 43-43335, 43-43336



The XP-51G used a 5-bladed Rotol prop. This was installed because of a deal with the British so NAA could get some of the new RR RM.14.SM engines. The new engine was down-rated from the initial of 2,200 to 1,190 horsepower. The 5-bladed prop was installed prior to the 5th test flight. The XP-51G clocked in at 492 mph at 20,700 feet, the fastest yet. The new Rotol prop was not very stable but the climb performance was very good: 3.85 minutes to 20,000 feet. The second XP-51G was shipped to Brittan with an RAF serial of FR410 for evaluation. THe XP-51G was essentially the XP-51F with the new engine and prop.
 

XP-51J 44-76027, 44-76028



The testing of these lightweights led to a production aircraft, NA-126, the P-51H which began in April 1944. Soon after, the AAF ordered the testing of 2 XP-51J aircraft, still under NA-105, which were fitted with the new Allison V-1710-119. This Allison had a two-stage supercharger like the Merlin. Although the performance was promised to be similar with the XP-51F/G, there are some accounts that the J model Allison was never flight tested at full power. Rated HP was 1,500 considerably more than the first Allison's used. Reports say that the new Allison had problems and was not liked by Schmued or Bob Chilton, NAA's test pilot. The XP-51J was turned over the USAAF on Feb 15, 1946. It was later used as a testbed for the Allison V-1710-143 used in the P-82 Twin Mustang.
 

 

The RAF "Mustang" I - IV

 

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Mustang-I

Specifications

The RAF Mustangs I-IV

Model Mustang I
Production 620
Length 32.25
Height 12.2
Wingspan 37.04
Weight - empty 6536
Weight - normal T.O. 8600
Weight - max G.W. 10,600
Powerplant Allison V-1710-39
Horsepower 1,150
Propeller Curtiss 3-bladed electric 10'6"
Max Speed 388 @ 15k
Service Ceiling 30,800
Fuel Capacity 180
Drop Tanks na
Range 750
Guns 2x .50 cal, 4x .30 cal
Bomb / Rockets na

Let us not forget that because of the British, North American Aviation entered the fighter building business. NAA was aggressive and optimistic and was able to jump into that business with their own design. Therefore the first orders placed at NAA were from the British for 320 Mustang Is.

 

 

 

Mustang I

 

The first batch of Mustang Is were NA-73, same as the XP-51 using the original powerplant, the Allison V-1710-39. NAA kept the first production aircraft, AG345, for testing and squawk fixing. The RAF received the first Mustang Is in October, 1941, considerably behind schedule. To make matters worse, 20 aircraft were lost at sea when the boats transporting them sank. When Brittan performed tests on the Mustang I, they were very enthused with the performance. Faster than the Spitfire by about 30 mph and had more than double the range.

AG348 was the last Mustang with the short nose intake. There were problems with induction during high-angles of attack. NAA extended the nose intake right up to the spinner. AG348 also was the end of any hand-tooled parts. The production line was in business.

Back in December of 1940, the RAF had added to their initial order with another 300 aircraft. Still called Mustang I, the new NAA designation was NA-83. Improvements can only be found in the exhaust stacks design. The new stacks were flared from top to bottom versus the more streamlined initial version.

 

 

Mustang I-A

 

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Mustang I's

Mustang I A's

March of 1941, the US Congress passed the Lend/Lease Act which permitted the "lending" of US built aircraft to nations that were "vital to the security of the United States". This allowed the US to place an order for 150 more Mustangs to be sent to Brittan. This allocation was NA-91, RAF designation of Mustang I-A. The Mustang Ia was equipped with four Hispano 20mm cannons installed in the wings. The nose guns were deleted. Out of the 150 ordered, only 111 were seriated for the RAF and probably less than that actually received.

After the attack of Pearl Harbor, the US Army held the remaining Lend/Lease order of NA-91s to Brittan. These, about 55, were designated P-51 and were fitted with four .50 cal guns instead of the cannons. But not all were configured with the Brownings. Cameras were added and a new designation of F-6A. The US Army actually called the NA-91s "Apache".

 

Mustang II

 

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Mustang II

The US Army placed their second order for P-51s, this time the P-51A, NA-99. 1,200 were ordered in August of 1942. The differences between the P-51A and the P-51/Mustang I was a new Allison V-1710-81, only four .50 guns in the wings, fixed belly scoop and the ability to use drop tanks.

Since the British were shorted on the last order, 50 NA-99s were designated Mustang II. The new Allison had an improved supercharger significantly increasing mid-altitude performance. The Mustang II had a top speed of 412 mph at 10,000 feet. This was the fastest mid-altitude fighter of the time. The full order of NA-99 was cut short for the beginning of the P-51B/C models.

Mustangs IIs were taken from the P-51A line so the specs are the same.

 

Mustang III

 

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Mustang III

The Mustang III and P-51B/C were the end of the Allison V-12s. Rolls Royce had obtained five Mustang Is for retrofit of a Merlin V-12 in June 1942. As you know, this was a perfect match and ended the production of the Allison Mustangs. NAA was also working on a retrofit with the Packard built Merlin 61 V-12. Orders were rushed and Brittan received almost 900 Mustang IIIs.

Field modifications included the addition of the Malcolm Hood. This was a bubble canopy that was fitted in the section above the pilot's head on the B/C models and the Mustang III. This improved visibility considerably. The canopy was on rails and not hinged like before, so it also made getting out easier. A new Merlin, the V1650-7 model was added to the production line increasing the horsepower by another 50.

The four .50 cal guns had a problem with jamming during high G maneuvers. The guns were mounted on a slight angle to fit inside the slender wing. This would be fixed in later versions and a field mod was approved. With these mods., the Mustang IIIs and the B/C models were considered the best of the war. The razor back design was strong and fast. The RAF found that if they tweaked the Merlin a bit, they could get about 417 mph at 2,000 feet. This would become a very good platform for chasing the German V-1 flying bombs. Both the Mustang IIs and IIIs would be used until the end of the war. Specifications for the Mustang IIs are very similar to the P-51B/C models.

 

Mustang IV

 

The drawbacks of the Mustang IIIs were few but they were addressed. The Malcolm Hood helped visibility, but checking your six was still not easy. The other complaint was only four .50 guns. The P-47 had eight. NAA modified a P-51B, 43-12102 with a cut down back and a true bubble canopy. Bob Chilton tested it and two other P-51Bs were taken for full modifications to the next designation NA-109.

Orders came in and the RAF was sent nearly 900 of these new Mustangs. The P-51D version was called the Mustang IV and the P-51K version was the Mustang IVa. The RAF received 284 and 594 respectively. They had the visibility and the firepower that the pilots needed. The first RAF serial was KH641 and the last TK589.

A very welcome addition was the K-14 gunsight during the early blocks of production. This helped the pilots score more kills with less ammunition. Interesting is that with the Lend/Lease Act, the Mustangs were returned to their maker after the war albeit a little worn. Specs for the Mustang IV and IV-A are the same as the P-51D and P-51K.

 

The A-36 "Apache"

 

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The A-36 Apache

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The A-36 Apache

April 1942 marked the first order of any P-51 variant by the US Army. 500 NA-97s were ordered. First named "Apache" by the Army, it was also called "Invader" and later mostly just "Mustang". The U.S. serials were 42-83663 to 42-84162.

The design was very similar to the Mustang I and P-51A. The powerplant was the Allison V-1710-87. The A-36 was a dive-bomber so the addition of hard points for two 500 lb bombs and dive brakes to slow the fast acceleration of the P-51 in a dive were added. The belly scoop was now fixed at the front. Armament was 2 guns in the nose and 4 in the wings, all .50 caliber.

 

Specifications
 

The A-36 "Apache"

Model A-36
Production 500
Length 32.25
Height 12.2
Wingspan 37.04
Weight - empty 6087
Weight - normal T.O. 8600
Weight - max G.W. 10,700
Powerplant Allison V-1710-87
Horsepower 1325
Propeller Curtiss 3-bladed electric 10'9"
Max Speed 356 @ 5k
Service Ceiling 25,100
Fuel Capacity 180
Drop Tanks 2x 75 gal
Range 750 / 1375+
Guns 6x .50 cal
Bomb / Rockets 2x 500 lb bombs

The dive brakes were operated hydraulically and located on the top and bottom of each wing outboard of the guns. Plan was that they limit the dive speed to 250 mph but in practice the angle of dive was reduced to 70 degrees because the high stress of pull-out from a higher angle.

The hard points for the bombs were also capable of holding 75 gallon drop tanks for extended range. The top speed of the A-36 was down from added weight to about 358 mph at 5,000 feet (without external stores).

Only one A-36 was sent to the RAF for evaluation as A-36 EW998 in March 1943. The US used the A-36 in the Mediterranean theatre with first deliveries beginning in early 1943. When not in the ground attack role, the A-36 was essentially a low-altitude P-51A and was used as a fighter. The A-36 scored 101 air-air victories during WWII.

The A-36 proved to be a very stable platform for accurate weapons delivery. 177 were lost in action mostly due to the dangerous mission of low-level operations.

 

 

 

 

 

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The A-36 Apache

 

The P-51A "Mustang"

 

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P-51A

Designated NA-99, the P-51A Mustang was ordered in numbers of 1,200 by the U.S. Army in August 1942. No ground attack here, no dive brakes, just pure fighter. This was the best fighter the U.S. had below 22,000 feet. This according to the AAF School of Applied Tactics at Orlando, FL.

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P-51A

 The P-51A was powered by the Allison V-1710-81 which had automatic boost control and rated at 1,200 horsepower. This Allison had increased performance at altitude over the V-1710-39 used in the P-51. The propeller was a 3-blade, 10 feet 6 inch Curtiss electric. Top speed was 390 mph at 20,000 feet and the service ceiling was 31,500 feet. There were two underwing mounts for bombs or drop tanks. Gross weight increased to 10,600 lbs. max with an average load of 8,600 lbs.

Range was 750 miles at 300 mph on internal fuel. Add two 125 gallon drop tanks and you go 2,000 miles at reduced power (not that anyone want to go that far inside the P-51A, but you could if you needed to).

Specifications

P-51A

Model P-51A
Production 310
Length 32.25
Height 12.2
Wingspan 37.04
Weight - empty 6433
Weight - normal T.O. 8600
Weight - max G.W. 10600
Powerplant Allison V-1710-81
Horsepower 1200
Propeller Curtiss 3-bladed electric 10'9"
Max Speed 390 @ 20k
Service Ceiling 31,350
Fuel Capacity 180
Drop Tanks 2x 75 gal
Range 750 / 1375+
Guns 4x .50 cal - 1260 rounds
Bomb / Rockets 2x 500 lb bombs

First flights were in February 1943 and deliveries began in March. The Mustang was delivered to the AAF in olive drab on top and a grey on bottom.

Serials for the P-51 were 43-6003 to 43-6312 starting with the P-51A-1NA and ending with the P-51A-10NA. 35 were used as recon F-6B and 50 were sent to the RAF to replace the NA-91 models earlier held back.

The P-51A served mainly as a fighter and escort in the China/Burma/India theatre (CBI). Modified versions called the F-6B, were fitted with camera equipment for recon and served in the ETO. The P-51A would see service into 1945, long after replacement models were in service. Production would be cut far short of the 1,200 ordered. As soon as the Rolls Royce Merlin modifications to the P-51 were deemed worthy, production was shifted to the new models. In all, 310 P-51As were produced by NAA.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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P-51A

 

The P-51B "Mustang"

 

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P-51B

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Now, the P-51 really comes to life. With successful retrofits of a Merlin engine into a P-51 from both sides of the Atlantic, orders were place for the new Mustangs, NA-102, NA-103, NA-104, the P-51B and P-51C. These retrofits first flew in October (RAF) and November (USAAF) of 1942. Orders for 400 P-51B-1NA had already been placed months before the successful test flights.

The engine would be the Packard built Rolls Royce Merlin 61, V-1650-3 which was rated more than 490 HP more than the Allison V-1710 at 25,000 feet! Other mods. included in the P-51B were increased loads to 1,000 lbs under each wing, no more nose mounted guns (no room with the Merlin) and a redesigned belly scoop. There were many other changes firewall forward to accommodate the new engine. The Merlin used an updraft induction system, so the intake was moved below the spinner and an intake trunk installed behind the cowlings.

The cooling system was key to the health of the Merlin. The front of the new design scoop was angled towards the back (from top to bottom). The scoop was lowered a bit more to get out of boundary layer turbulent air under the wing. Behind the scoop, the ducting was enlarged to fit separate locations of the coolant and oil coolers. The oil cooler was repositioned in front and slightly lower than the main radiator and given its own exit door. The main radiator door was enlarged and redesigned.

The exit doors controlled the amount of airflow exiting the ducting thus controlling the amount of airflow entering the scoop and flowing over the coolers. Settings in the cockpit could be set automatic or controlled manually if needed. The P-51 was designed to be easy to fly for the pilot so he could concentrate on other stuff like the bad guys. Alternate filtered air intakes were added on each side of the chin scoop. These were for use in dusty conditions only as it cut the intake airflow down a bit.

High-altitude performance was outstanding. The new Merlin powered Mustang could outrun an Allison P-51 by 100 mph at 30,000 feet. The USAAF finally saw the advantage of having this fighter on its team and ordered 2,200 P-51Bs. Max speed was 437 mph at 25,000 feet. Gross weight was increased to 11,200 lbs. for the -1 block and 11,600 thereafter.

Now NAA was really cooking. They had the hottest fighter in existence and orders piling up at the hangar door. Could they keep up production with the orders? The USAAF did not think they could as equipped, so they instructed NAA to expand their Dallas plant to start a new line for more P-51s. The P-51B model line would be built at the Inglewood plant, and the P-51C line at the Dallas plant.

Specifications


P-51B & P-51C

Model P-51B / P-51C
Production 1988 / 1750
Length 32.25
Height 13.67
Wingspan 37.04
Weight - empty 6985
Weight - normal T.O. 9,800
Weight - max G.W. 11,800
Powerplant Packard (Rolls Royce) V-1650-3, -7
Horsepower 1380, 1490
Propeller Hamilton Standard 11'2" 4-blade
Max Speed 439 mph at 25k feet
Service Ceiling 41,800
Fuel Capacity 180, 269
Drop Tanks 2x 75 or 2x 108
Range 1,180 and 1,900 w/DT
Armament 4x .50 cal. - 1260 rounds
(2) 1,000 lb bombs or rockets

The first P-51B exited the assembly line and flew in May of 1943. The P-51C model flew 3 months later. In search of even more range, an 85 gallon fuselage tank was installed behind the pilot's seat. This began with the P-51B-7NA (taken from -5 line) and the P-51C-3NT versions (taken from the -1 line). With this added range came a price of directional stability. Fully fueled and loaded, the P-51B and P-51C were a handful in take-off and climb. Pilot's soon learned to burn most of the fuel in the fuselage tank first, then switch to the drop tanks before you had to drop them and fight, then back to any leftovers in the fuselage tank on the way home and finally to the mains in the wings. Read Bob Goebel's book for a great story about how he learned about that.

The -5 block added the alternate air source on each side of the cowling with filtered air and provisions for cold weather operations. A new Merlin -7 model was incorporated into the production line at the end of the P-51B-10NA block. Horsepower was boosted again, up another 50 to 1,450 at take-off. 91 model F-6C-NA or NT were created from -10 block of P-51Bs and the -10 block of P-51Cs. They had cameras mounted in the rear fuselage near the star and bars.

Problems for the P-51B and C models included poor visibility towards the rear and gun jamming during high G maneuvers. The RAF found the best solution (at the time) for the visibility issue was installing a "Malcolm Hood" which was a bubble type canopy around the pilot's area of the birdcage. The new hood was on rails sliding rearward for an easy in and out. The old canopy was hinged and more difficult for egress.

The gun jamming problem was solved in the D line and a field mod was sent out to fix B and C models in service. The B and C models only had 4 .50 cal guns. This would be increased to six in the D model line.

The first operation unit to receive the new Mustangs was the 354th Fighter Group appropriately nicknamed "The Pioneer Mustang Group". The B models were on station in October of 1943. Other units started to receive Merlin Mustangs in December '43 and January '44.

The USAAF soon realized that after loosing nearly a third of their bomber force on some missions, that the bombers could not defend themselves against enemy fighters as some had thought. The long-range Mustangs were pushed into service as escorts to the daylight bombing missions. Bomber crews were very happy to see them along side. Six months later, enemy fighters would not be the biggest problem anymore. But, very accurate and deadly enemy flak would be.

The "Razorback" Merlin Mustangs P-51B and P-51C remained in service until the end of the war.


 

The P-51 C "Mustang"

 

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In late 1942, the British and the U.S. successfully tested the Rolls Royce Merlin V-12 installed in a P-51 (NA-91). The NAA production plant at Inglewood, Ca would be at full capacity building the new P-51B. NAA decided to expand their plant in Dallas, Texas to build more P-51Bs. The B models built in Dallas, were re-designated P-51C.

In all 1,750 P-51C models were built. The NAA model #s were NA-103 and NA-111. The first C models were P-51C-1NT (NT for Dallas, NA for Inglewood). These had the first Packard built RR Merlin used in the Mustangs, the V-1650-3. The fuselage tank was added to P-51C-1s and then renamed P-51C-3NT. Later the more powerful V-1650-7 Merlin was introduced in the P-51C-5NT and -10 blocks. Alternate air source was added early on in the first block of P-51Cs.The P-51C suffered the same problems as the P-51B with gun jamming and poor visibility to the rear. As with the B model, these problems were fixed at the factory and in the field.

Deliveres began in August 1943, later than the B model. The P-51C had to wait until the Dallas plant was ready for production.

Specification for the P-51C were identical to the P-51B.

 

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The P-51C

The P-51C

 

The P-51D Mustang

 

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P-51D

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The P-51B and P-51C were excellent aircraft that served until the end of the war. The shortcomings of the B/C models were well-known and evolved into a new model of P-51, the P-51D. The B and C models suffered poor rearward visibility and gun jamming during high-G maneuvers. The B/C models only had four .50 cal Brownings (2 in each wing). Pilots wanted more fire power. NAA also took the opportunity to make other improvements to the new line.

The new line, designated NA-109, P-51D, was started after the USAAF ordered 2,500 in July 1943. Interesting is that the XP-51D did not have a test flight until November 17, 1943, well after the first order was placed. Deliveries to fighter units began March of 1944 and a good supply was on hand for the Normandy Invasion, or D-Day.

The signature change in the P-51D line was the new bubble canopy. The U.S. was behind the British in canopy development. A British company had designed and built the "Malcolm Hood" which improved visibility to the rear of the P-51B/C models. The U.S. was not unaware of the advantages of a bubble canopy design. NAA had built a wooden model of the P-51 with a bubble canopy for wind tunnel testing. The technology to build large curves of Plexiglas "distortion free" at that time was being invented and developed.

The British had figured out how to make a bubble (also called "teardrop") canopy with unobstructed 360 degree view and they were beginning to use them on the latest model of Spitfires and Typhoons. The U.S. Army sent Col. Mark Bradley to England in January of 1943 to find out the workings of this new canopy and then find a way to get them on U.S. fighters. Bradley returned and began to pursue ways to incorporate the new style. The first U.S. fighter so tested was a Republic P-47.

NAA pulled P-51B-1NA 43-12102 from the production line for modifications. To my knowledge, the only D model modification made was the new experimental bubble canopy and the razorback of the B model had to be cut down and modified to fit the new canopy. 43-12102 was test flown by Bob Chilton and results were a big thumbs up. Some refer to this aircraft as an XP-51D but this does not appear to be an official designation for this P-51. If you study the pictures of this Mustang, you will not see any of the other D model mods. It retains a B model wing and does not have a fuselage fuel tank. This aircraft continued to be used for testing.

With the success of 43-12102, NAA modified two P-51B-10NA models 43-106539 and 43-106540 as NA-106 (order dated May 1, 1943) with the sliding bubble canopy and the new six .50 cal gun setup. These models were initially designated as XP-51D and later changed to P-51D-NA. Some write they were P-51D-1NA. The designation of -1 is odd because the -1 block were P-51Ds that went to Australia unassembled.

The wing of the new D model had to be reworked to fit three (in each wing) .50 cal Brownings upright. The arrangement of the ammo chutes eliminated the jamming problem on the B/C models. The inner gun carried 400 rounds and the two outer guns had 280 rounds each. The gear operation was also changed and this lead to a larger "kink" in the leading edge of the wing at the wing root. The aileron effectiveness and strength were both improved. A seal was added to the leading edge of the aileron which helped ease stick pressure during tough maneuvers. The landing light was moved from the wing leading edge to inside the gear well. With the gear extended the light would hinge downward.

The cut-down back for the new bubble canopy lead to a loss of surface area. This caused the P-51D to have directional problems (especially with full fuel in the fuselage tank creating an aft CG) for all but the most proficient pilots. The solution was to add a fillet (often called the "dorsal fin") to the vertical stabilizer that extended down and towards the front. The fillet was also added to other P-51 models already in the field.

The engine was the Packard built RR Merlin V-1650-7 (continued from the P-51B line) and the all P-51Ds and Ks would use this workhorse. The -3 ("dash 3") Merlin had very good high-altitude performance but a change in the supercharger impeller gear ratios raised horsepower for take-off to 1,490 and full power to 1,590 at 8,500 feet. The supercharger modification increased the low-altitude performance but at a slight price in high altitude performance.

The first batch of P-51Ds was the -1NA block, NA-110. This was 100 P-51Ds unassembled to Australia. Another oddity, it is reported that the first four in this block still had the B model birdcage canopy. NA-109 was the order placed in July of 1943 for 2,500 P-51s. The first block of P-51D-5NA had 800 aircraft, -10NA another 800, -15NA 400 and -15NA of 500 aircraft.

North American Aviation's production facilities were all at full capacity and expanding. The D models were built both in Inglewood, Ca (-NA) and Dallas, Texas (-NT). The P-51K models were only built in Dallas. In June of 1944 an additional order of 4,000 P-51Ds was placed. This order was designated NA-122. The first three blocks of NA-122 were P-51D-20NA with 1000, 100 and 500 aircraft respectively. The next two blocks, -25NA comprised of 1000 and 600 P-51Ds. The final block of NA-122 was the -30NA block with 800 units.

At the Dallas Texas plant, 1600 P-51D models were produced. Order NA-111 included 200 P-51D-5NT and 400 D-20NT. NA-124 was the last of the P-51s in Dallas. These were 600 P-51D-25NT and 400 P-51D-30NT. P-51D-30NT was the only block of P-51s with the serial number starting with "45" for 1945.

The dorsal fin was added during the P-51D-10NA and later versions at the factory. Many other P-51s received this mod in the field. Look on this page, there is a wartime picture of a -5 model with the dorsal fin. Metal elevators were added in February 1945. The P-51D continued to have a fabric rudder. The -25 blocks and later were fitted with attachment points for various forms of rockets and rocket launchers.

One of the most important improvements to the P-51 was not structural. The K-14 gun sight was introduced in October of 1944 to the -20NA and later blocks. This new gun sight helped the pilots score more hits especially in higher deflection angle attacks. The K-14 utilized an analog computer. The pilot had to dial in the wingspan of the enemy aircraft and the range. Then all he had to do (sounds easy) was to put the enemy aircraft in the gun sight and pull the trigger.

Conversions to the D models included recon P-51s taken from both the Inglewood and Dallas plants and designated F-6D. Several units were converted including 31 F6D-20NT, 70 F6D-25NT and 35 F6D-30NT. The F-6 had cameras mounted in the rear fuselage, one facing to the pilot's left and slightly forward and a camera facing downward out of the bottom of the fuselage. Most F-6s retained their armament.

A two-seat version was created and designated TP-51. The fuselage tank was omitted and the radios were relocated. There was a rear seat added with full dual-controls. The standard canopy was used in the TP-51. The most famous flight of General Eisenhower soon after the Normandy Invasion was in the back of a TP-51.

Considered by many as the definitive P-51, the P-51D was the most produced Mustang with 8,102 units built. It is also the most survived of the models with many still flying today.

The P-51D/K specs are on the P-51K page.

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P-51D

 

The P-51K Mustang

 

Specifications
 

P-51D & P-51K

Model P-51D / P-51K
Production 8,102 / 1,500
Length 32.25
Height 13.67
Wingspan 37.04
Weight - empty 7,635
Weight - normal T.O. 10,100
Weight - max G.W. 12,100
Powerplant Packard (Rolls Royce) V-1650-7
Horsepower 1,490
Propeller Hamilton Standard 11'2" 4-blade (D)
Aeroproducts 11'0" 4-blade (K)
Max Speed 437 at 25k
Service Ceiling 41,780 feet
Fuel Capacity 269
Drop Tanks 2x 75 or 2x 108
Range 1,180 and 1,900 w/DT
Armament 6x .50 cal. - 1880 rounds
(2) 1,000 lb bombs or rockets

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P-51K

The P-51K Mustang was essentially a P-51D with a different propeller. With war production at max capacity in Inglewood, NAA added P-51 production at their Dallas Texas plant starting with the P-51B. The new designation of the B models built in Dallas was P-51C.

When the P-51D began production, once again the Dallas plant was needed. Unlike the B models, when the D models were built in Dallas, their designation of "D" was kept. They were identified as built from the Dallas plant with the "NT" suffix. So a -5 block of a D model Mustang built in Dallas would be a P-51D-5NT. These were identical to a P-51D-5NA, built in Inglewood, Ca.

The propeller of NAA's choice was the Hamilton Standard 4-blade version used on the B, C and D models. Wartime production of these props from Hamilton Standard were not keeping up with demand and a suitable replacement was needed. Aeroproducts was contracted to supply the Dallas plant with their 4-blade 11' diameter hollow steel propeller. All P-51K versions used this prop.

The Aeroproducts propeller was generally not favorable to most crew chiefs and many props were not balanced well. Even so, they did the job at the time. The K model was able to get into the action instead of waiting on the line for more supplies from Hamilton Standard.

The Aeroproducts props are easily identified by the different blade shape. There are no cuffs like the Hamilton Standard. The blade gradually widens towards the center of the length and then is narrower out at the rounded tip. During the war, it was common to find a K model with a Hamilton Standard. In the field, such replacements of props and even engines were done with supplies on hand. Some K model Merlin's (-7) were replaced with the older -3 version. Supplies on hand. With a Hamilton Standard prop on a K model, you would not be able to tell the difference between that K model and the D unless you read the placard.

The later version of the Hamilton Standard, sometimes called the "paddle blade" did not have the cuffs and had a fat squared tip. The standard cuffed version had a rounded tip.

There have been some that say that the K model canopy was different, but that has been disputed many times. More than once, I've thought some of the K canopies looked different, but it was explained to me that it was just a different mill run from the manufacturer, not a planned or designed difference. Others have told me (and I've read it somewhere) that they were different.

The P-51K production numbers are as follows: (all NA-111) 200 P-51K-1NT, 400 P-51K-5NT, 600 P-51K-10NT, 200 P-51K-15NT and 100 P-51K-15NT. 163 of the K models were modified for the recon version, the F-6K. The count for the F-6K was: 57 F6K-5NT, 63 F6K-10NT and 43 F6K-15NT.

P-51 Air Racers

 

 

The P-51H Mustang

 

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P-51 H

In July of 1943, U.S. Army approved a contract with North American Aviation to design and build a lightweight P-51. Designated NA-105, 5 aircraft were to be built and tested. Edgar Schmued, chief of design at NAA, began this design early in 1943. He, in February of 1943, left the U.S. on a two month trip to England. He was to visit the Supermarine factory and the Rolls Royce factory to work on his lightweight project.

Rolls Royce had designed a new version of the Merlin, the RM.14.SM, which was proposed to increase the manifold pressure to 120 (from 67 max) and thus improve horsepower to 2,200. Schmued was very eager to use this powerplant. The new Merlin was not heavier than the earlier models. Schmued visited with the engineers at Rolls Royce and they answered his many questions. Schmued left the Rolls Royce factory very satisfied with their cooperation.

British fighters were lighter than U.S. fighters. Schmued ask for detailed weight statements from Supermarine on the Spitfire. Schmued wanted to know why the Spitfires were so much lighter than the P-51. Supermairne did not have such data on the Spitfire, so they started weighing all the parts they could get a hold of and made a report for Schmued. The British had design standards that were not at strict in some areas of design as the U.S. Landing gear, angle of attack and side engine design loads were higher in the U.S.

When Schmued returned, they began a new design of the P-51 Mustang that used British design loads. They shaved weight on any part that could yield. They were able to reduce the empty weight of the P-51 by 600 pounds. This would translate into more performance.

The lightweight prototypes were designated XP-51F, XP-51G and XP-51J. After testing of these prototypes, the production version, NA-126 P-51H, was closest to the XP-51F. The project began in April of 1944 and the contract for 1,000 P-51Hs was approved on June 30, 1944.

The H model was a completely new design. Yes it looks like a P-51, but you can tell there is something not the same. I remember as a teenager when I saw my first P-51H in person. I asked my dad, "that's a Mustang ... isn't it?" as I looked at it and tilted my head slightly. He looked and my uncle looked, and then they paused and decided that yes it was a mustang and it must be the later H model (they were seldom stumped when I asked them aircraft ID questions).

Almost all the parts from the D line were not usable in the P-51H. This was the first production P-51 with a complete overhaul. The wing did not have that famous leading edge kink in it. The landing gear was visibly smaller. The profile shows new lines with a taller tail (later versions). The fuselage was a bit more slender and the length was increased to 33.33 feet. The wingspan stayed the same. The belly scoop inlet profile was not angled any longer but was now square again like the first P-51s. The chin scoop for the engine was decreased in size.

The wheels now had disk brakes. The oil cooler was moved from inside the belly scoop to in front of the oil tank ahead of the firewall. This eliminated the oil lines that ran from the engine to the old location in the scoop. The oil was now cooled by a heat exchanger mounted next to the engine intercooler.

The engine mounts were incorporated into the structural engine cradle, thus saving weight. The engine would not be the newer RS.14.SM Merlin as in some of the lightweight prototypes. The Rolls Royce Merlin V-1650-9 was chosen. Take-off horsepower was actually down from the -7 series to 1,380. But, the new -9 Merlin used water/alcohol injection and was able to up the war emergency power to 2,200 at 10,200 feet. This was the fastest production P-51 clocking 487 mph at 25,000 feet.

The propeller of the P-51H was the Aeroproducts 11'1" 4-blade Unimatic otherwise know as the "H prop". This prop is even lighter than the K model Aeroproducts but it looks much different. The blades are wider and keep approx. the same width almost the whole blade. The tips are rounded.

Armament was the same as in the P-51D. Removable ammo boxes and a redesign of the ammo doors were added. This saved time reloading and must have eased up on the laminar flow killing scratches and scuffs on the wings. The earlier models had to be loaded by hand out of portable ammo boxes. The top surfaces of the wings were taking a huge beating and disrupting the true laminar flow of the wing surface. I honestly doubt the crews in the field either knew or cared much about that.

Fuel in the fuselage tank was decreased to 55 gallons max. The fuselage skins were lighter and thinner, made from a new alloy. The cockpit panel was improved and simplified. The canopy was redesigned and the "hump" moved further forward. The pilot sat higher for a better angle using the gunsight.

The first P-51H flew on Feb 3, 1945 with Bob Chilton at the controls. This P-51H-1NA, 44-64160 was wrecked three days later when the prop failed. Production continued and 221 P-51Hs were delivered by July 30 and 370 by VJ Day in early September.

Specifications

P-51H

 
Model P-51H
Production 555
Length 33.33
Height 13.67
Wingspan 37.04
Weight - empty 7040
Weight - normal T.O. 9,500
Weight - max G.W. 11,500
Powerplant Packard (Rolls Royce) V-1650-9
Horsepower 1,490
Propeller Aeroproducts 4-blade
Max Speed 490 at 25k
Service Ceiling 41,320 feet
Fuel Capacity 255
Drop Tanks 2x 75 or 2x 108
Range 855 and 1,200 w/DT
Armament 6x .50 cal. - 1880 rounds
(2) 1,000 lb bombs or rockets

Contrary to what many believe, the P-51H did not start out as "the tall tail Mustang". The first 20 P-51H-1NA were built with the lower D model height tail. These units were later retrofitted with the taller tail. The taller tail and smaller fuselage fuel tank of 55 gallons, rid the P-51 of the annoying directional stability problem.

Production was cut short by the end of the war. All P-51H versions were built at Inglewood, Ca. The Dallas, Tx version of the P-51H, NA-129 P-51L with the newest Merlin, the V-1650-11, would not finish any models. The last P-51 off the Texas production line was an NA-124 order which included the newer P-51M which was an improved P-51D-30 with the V-1650-9A Merlin and a Hamilton Standard Prop. The -9A Merlin did not have water injection. One production M model was completed. The 63 partially built units were scrapped.

The last P-15H-10NA rolled out of the Inglewood factory in November of 1945. In all, a total of 555 P-51H models were completed: 20 P-51H-1NA, 280 P-51H-5NA and 255 P-51H-10NA were finished and accepted in the USAAF.

Even though some units in the pacific received the P-51H before VJ Day, they did not see any action. Ironically, when the start of the the Korea War broke out, the earlier version of the P-51, the P-51D was chosen to do the fighting, not the P-51H. In the years to follow, the H was used in many Air National Guard units around the U.S.

Only 5 P-51Hs survived, 2 are display quality only, 2 are airworthy and the last is in restoration to be airworthy. One of the XP-51G prototypes does exist and is in a long term restoration with John Morgan in California. This G model was saved by chance and fast action while on its way to the scrapper.

 

The Aussie Mustangs CA-17

 

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CA-17

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In 1942 the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) was looking for a new fighter aircraft. They decided on the P-51 Mustang as their high altitude interceptor. In late 1943, an agreement between NAA and the RAAF was reached. An Australian aircraft company, Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation (CAC), would build P-51Ds under license in Australia.

As part of the agreement, NAA would supply 100 P-51D Mustangs unassembled and Packard would supply some 80+ -3 Merlin engines. Delays mounted and the first CAC P-51 did not fly until April 1945. In all, 80 P-51s were completed from these parts and designated CA-17Mk.20, A68-1 to A68-80.

As the war came to an end, the total scratch built CAC P-51s was reduced to 120 aircraft. The CAC new built P-51s were designated CA-18. Versions would be the Mark 21, Mark 22, and Mark 23.

The Merlin V-1650-7 was used in the CA-18Mk.21 models. The CA-18Mk.23 use the British built Rolls Royce Merlin 66 or 70 versions. The CA-18Mk.22 were modified like the F-6D reconnaissance versions. The last CA-18Mk.23 came off the production line in 1952.

Australia also received 298 P-51Ds from the U.S. under Lend-Lease. After the Aussie Mustangs were surplussed, Australia became a popular site for P-51 airframes and parts. Restorer and collectors alike would travel down under to make deals and trades. Several P-51s have remained in Australia and are kept airworthy and well cared for by their pilots and owners.

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The Aussie Mustangs CA-17

 

 

The Cavalier Mustangs

 

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Cavalier Mustangs

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In 1957, the last of the active duty F-51s were withdrawn from ANG service. This released many F-51s to the civilian market. David Lindsay, a newspaper publisher, formed Trans Florida Aviation with the intent of refurbishing the ex-military P-51s into well-equipped civilian business aircraft.

Lindsay purchased surplus P-51s (mostly P-51D) and began a restoration process. They would strip out all the military equipment, add a second seat behind the pilot, add extra fuel capacity (some models), update the avionics, install a tall tail like the P-51H, plush out the interior to provide the most comfort possible and finish the job with a civilian paint scheme.

One of the P-51s main attributes was its great range. The first P-51 conversion, named Cavalier, was in 1958. Orders trickled in for the first few years. The models offered were all relative to the range of the aircraft. The model numbers (all prefixed by "Cavalier") were 750, 1200, 1500, 2000 and 2500. The longest range Cavalier, the Cavalier 2500, included 110 gallon wingtip fuel tanks. Remember, with the second seat, the fuselage fuel tank was removed and the main wing tanks would yield about 180 gallons usable.

Trans-Florida was renamed Cavalier Aircraft Corporation and purchased the rights of the P-51 design from North American Aviation. In 1967, the USAF contracted with Cavalier to produce the F-51D for export to South America under the Military Assistance Program (MAP). These aircraft were given new serial numbers starting with the first, 67-14862 and named "Mustang II". In 1967 a total of 9 were built. These aircraft went to Bolivia.

Cavalier also repaired and retrofitted existing P-51s that eventually went "down south". Several P-51s were sent to TFA (Trans Florida) from South America for repairs and upgrades.

Changes to the Mustang II were made for increased loads. The wing was strengthened to carry a total of 4,000 lbs of ordance and additional weapon hard points were installed, up to six under each wing. A rear seat was installed in these models, for observers. A new Merlin V-1650-7 was installed and these Cavaliers also received the taller H tail. In 1968, two of the new Mustang IIs went to the USAF as chase planes. These were serialed 68-15795 and 68-15796.

More orders placed in 1972 for 6 aircraft under MAP for export to Indonesia. The Mustang IIs did not have wingtip fuel tanks.

With new ideas of how to keep the P-51 Mustang alive and in service, David Lindsay wanted to try replacing the long-standing workhorse Merlin V-12 with a turboprop. Lindsay perferred the Lycoming T-55 but had difficulties obtaining a copy. They were able to get a Rolls Royce Dart 510 Turboprop and installed it in civilian P-51 N6167U. This mod was not funded by the USAF, but by Cavalier.

The new modification was called the Turbo Mustang III. Cavalier tried to get the USAF and other air forces interested in the project but no sales were made. Later, Cavalier sold the project to Piper and it later became the PA-48 Enforcer. The Enforcer had little in common with the original P-51.

The USAF, under pressure from Congress, did order two prototype PA-48 from Piper. No other orders were place and the project died. The two PA-48 Enforcers do exist today at USAF Museums. Many Cavalier Mustangs are still airworthy today.

 

Sources

Doing the research for this section I found that many of the sources have conflicting information. Every effort was made to use information that was supported by more than one source. This, however, was not always possible. In some cases, a publication that you trusted differed from all the others.

North American F-51 Mustangs, John Dienst and Dan Hagedorn, 1985

Mustang Designer - Edgar Schmued and the P-51, Ray Wagner, 1990

Mustang - The Operational Record, Robert Jackson, 1992

Classic Warplanes - P-51 Mustang, Bill Gunston, 1990

Planes and Pilots - P-51 Mustang 1940-1980, Breffort and Jouineau, 2003

Production Line to Frontline - P-51 Mustang, Michael O'Leary, 1998

Warbird History - P-51 Mustang, Robert F. Dorr, 1995

P-51 Mustang - in detail and scale, Bert Kinzey, 1997

Warbird Tech Series - P-51 Mustang, Frederick A. Johnsen, 1996

Walk Around P-51D, Larry Davis, 1996

P-51 Mustang - A Photo Chronicle, Larry Davis, 1992

Mustang at War, Roger A. Freeman, 1974

Speedsters, Philip Handleman, 1996

Gentlemen, You Have A Race, John Tegler, 1984

Mustang-The Racing Thoroughbred, Dustin Carter / Birch Matthews, 1972
 


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02/10/2014

 

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